Final Examination of
James C. Kruggel
For the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Friday, February 15, 2013
10:30 a.m., Caldwell Room 125
"Scripture, Tradition and the Magisterium in the Teaching of Vatican II"
James C. Kruggel
Director: Dr. John T. Ford, CSC, S.T.D.
In 1965, the Second Vatican Council in its Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation (Dei Verbum) taught that “Scripture, Tradition, and the teaching authority of the Church, in accord with God’s most wise design, are so linked and joined together that one cannot stand without the others, and that all together and each in its own way under the action of the one Holy Spirit contribute effectively to the salvation of souls” (§ 10.4). This description of the relationship of Scripture, Tradition and the Magisterium reflects a notable development of pre-conciliar thought.
In his encyclical Humani Generis (1950), Pope Pius XII presented Scripture and Tradition as “sources” of Revelation entrusted to the Magisterium without explaining their relationship or discussing a theology of Tradition. Gerardus Van Noort’s seminary manual, Dogmatic Theology, stated that the sources of Revelation are interpreted by the Magisterium. The teaching of the Second Vatican Council, which presented Revelation as God’s self-disclosure, emphasized the mutual interdependence of Scripture, Tradition, and the Magisterium and offered a more dynamic explanation of Tradition. This view resembled those of Yves Congar, Karl Rahner, and Joseph Ratzinger.
In 1998, the teaching of Dei Verbum (§10.4) was developed by Pope John Paul II in his encyclical On the Relationship of Faith and Reason (Fides et Ratio). In contrast to Dei Verbum (§ 21), which identified Scripture and Tradition as the rule of faith, Fides et Ratio cited Dei Verbum (§ 10.4) as teaching that Scripture, Tradition and the Magisterium constitute the rule of faith. In effect, the understanding of the relationship of Scripture, Tradition and the Magisterium has continued to develop since the Second Vatican Council.