The Catholic University of America

 Mark S. Raphael

Final Examination of Mark S. Raphael

For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

October 1, 2009, 9:00 a.m. Caldwell Hall Room 125



Chair: John White, Secretary: James Riley

Director: Christopher Kauffman

Readers: Leslie Tentler and Timothy Meagher



Summary of Coursework

HIST   572      Church in Colonial Latin America

HIST   585       Latin American Religion and Society,19th and 20th Centuries

TRS    520      Introduction to Church History

TRS    624      Church and Society in France

TRS    727B    Formation of Orthodoxy

TRS    728C    Council of Trent

TRS    728F    Mission Territory: Young Church

TRS    825F    The Catholic Church and the Press

TRS    897       Directed Research: Americanism

TRS    897       Directed Research: Church in Modern France

TRS    997       Doctoral Dissertation Guidance



“John William Shaw, First American-born Archbishop of New Orleans” (1918-1934)


This dissertation represents a consideration of the leadership of John William Shaw, Bishop of San Antonio, Texas, from 1910 until 1918, and Archbishop of New Orleans, Louisiana, from 1918 until his death in 1934, in terms of how he blended and applied his heritage as a Southerner, an Americanizer, and a Roman Catholic prelate to issues facing the American Catholic Church between the Civil War and the Great Depression. Research supporting this endeavor was built around the surviving primary sources stored in the three places Shaw served: Mobile, Alabama, San Antonio, and New Orleans. Supplementing the primary sources is a wide array of scholarly works on the region and on the issues of race and ethnicity, religion and politics, education and parish ministry, and sectionalism versus nationalism.


As a result of an assessment of both the primary and secondary sources it may be said that Shaw managed to accomplish a rare synthesis by remaining faithful to his Southern idealism at the same time he never wavered from pursuing an agenda of ecclesiastical Americanization. In the end his long term contribution was as an institution builder and a promoter of Americanism, while his limitations are most clearly seen in his attitudes toward immigrants and African-Americans. It is hoped that this dissertation will represent a useful addition to the scholarly literature dealing with a pivotal time in the history of Southern American Catholicism.